Wind farms are a set of wind turbines in the wind-prone region. These regions are generally near mountain passes. Wind farm’s capacity ranges from 10 to 500 kW per unit.
However, there are limits to power generation using wind energy; all wind kinetic energy is not usable because the air velocity from the blade must be swift. The maximum achievable efficiency is 59 %. However, wind turbines extract only part of the amount.
At the moment, the maximum achievable performance with the propeller Wind windmill is approximately 47 %. It happens when the speed of the propeller is 5 to 6 times the speed of the wind. The rotor rate is reduced by decreasing wind speed. Therefore, the maximum energy from a rotor with a diameter of 30 meters per second will be approximately 690 kW per second. If the wind speed is reducing to 7 meters per second, the maximum energy has been reduced to 86 V.
When the wind speed drops to this value, 17,000 wind turbines are needed to generate electricity the size of a one million kilowatt power plant. Understanding these limitations requires a suitable farm with constant winds, which indicates that wind turbines alone do not play a significant role in meeting energy demand.
Development of wind turbines
The development of electric generators as free and open-source of energy has increased the tendency to use this energy.
- Prototype development
Modern wind turbines are dramatically more cost-effective and reliable, and their production capacity has increased by several megawatts.
From 1999 to 2016, the average production capacity of turbines increased by 2.15 MW. This increase in production capacity has been reached through the development of taller, lighter rotor blades, taller towers, more reliable engines, and performance optimization control systems.
- Development of constructive components
The production of an innovative wind turbine blade leads to an increase in energy absorption by 12 %, according to research by the wind energy technology company (WETO). The most important feature of this new blade is the gentle curve, which can generate energy from the low speed of the wind.